Bacteria from the gastrointestinal system are necessary for its normal physiological function, but some can also be potentially pathogenic. Dysbiosis occurs when the balance of intestinal bacterial microflora is disrupted when “good” and “bad” bacteriae are not balanced which can cause a metabolic or immune response in a human being.
Intestinal flora is considered to be an important factor in promoting health, and with beneficial effects of the probiotics on the health of humans are more numerous. It is known that changes in the system of intestinal microflora can be bases of various diseases, like diseases of the digestive system, skin manifestations, autoimmune diseases, and even obesity. Change of intestinal microflora composition is possible by applying certain sorts of probiotics and prebiotics (special kinds of fibers that serve as “food” for probiotics).
Bacteria that inhabit the intestines, especially lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, own antimicrobial activity so they affect the local (in the digestive system) and on systemic human immunity, being that in the intestine are even 60 percent of immune system cells. One of the mechanisms with which probiotics participate in the modification of intestinal microflora includes creating milk acid which reduces local pH and disables growth of the bacteria sensitive to a sour medium.
Further on, it is believed that, even though binding bacteria to cells of the intestinal epithelium has never been shown in vivo, probiotics compete with pathogenic bacteria for the places on the epithelium cells and in that way they prevent the colonization of pathogenic bacterial species like B. vulgatus, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium histolyticum, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and some species of E. Coli.
Correct function of the intestinal barrier is considered to be an important defense mechanism that has a purpose of maintaining the integrity of the epithelium and consequential protection of the organism from harmful external influences. If the barrier is damaged, digestive and bacterial antigens outreach for submucosa and induce inflammatory processes that can result in intestinal disorders. Also, when the intestine becomes permeable, many toxins can get into the blood and in that way travel to various tissues and organs and cause various disorders, for example, skin manifestations like dermatitis, eczema, acne, etc.
Daily Recommended by Nutritionists
Probiotics are used to take in fermented dairy products, but also in food supplements where they are found in a lyophilized form of capsules, powders, dissolved in suspensions. It is important to check which sort or sorts it is about and to check if they have proven the probiotic effect.
How to Choose a Probiotic
Probiotics found their place in numerous functional products, and mostly they are used in fermented dairy products. For starters, it should be clear that not all yogurts are probiotics. Regular bacteria of the milk fermentation with which yogurt is made today are not the main players in the world of fermented dairy products. Especially are appreciated probiotics, specific sort of bacteria whose good effect on our organism is scientifically proven. Probiotics are added to various fermented products, usually yogurt.
These bacteria are procreating rather slow in milk, so with them, fermentation usually lasts too long. Probiotic yogurts have almost the same energetic value of 39 up to 57 kcal, and which usually depends on the contribution of sugar and milk fat, being that the contribution of proteins is almost the same in all products. It is good when the products have a specified number of bacteria that contain exactly defined bacterial sorts. Also, the content of calcium should be good to specify on the box.
A good supplement to probiotics are prebiotics – fibers that serve as “food” for probiotics and in that way stimulate their growth and activity – these are for example inulin, oligofructose, galactooligosaccharides. A good probiotic should contain at least 10 of the eighth bacteria of exactly defined sorts (eg. LGG, BB12 or LA-5). It is preferable to take it every day, for example, one probiotic yogurt a day. In certain situations of disturbed intestinal microbiota 2-3 yogurts, a day can be taken.
Characteristics of Probiotics with Flavor
Probiotics with fruit flavors contain more sugar than regular probiotic yogurts, so during the examination of the declaration, it is important to pay attention to the amount of sugar and calories that it contains. Also, it is good to check if the product contains natural or artificial aromas and colors, as the number of bacteria and the sorts that it contains. Today probiotic yogurts with flavors often have an addition of cereal, so in that way, they contribute to the nutrition and fiber intake that additionally help the digestion.